7 Mart 2012 Çarşamba

The Simple Past / Belirli Geçmiş Zaman




The Simple Past / Belirli Geçmiş Zaman
 --> Did/Didn't
 
Bu zaman Türkçeye -di olarak çevrilebilir. Genelde içinde bulunulan zamandan önce olup biten olayları anlatır. Ayrıca geçmişte aralıklarla yinelenmiş işleri anlatmada ve dolaylı anlatımlarda geniş zamanın yerine de kullanılır. Geçmiş, bitmiş ve tarihe geçmiş olaylar için kullanılır.

 

Yazım Kuralları


Fiiller iki şekile ayrılır dünzenli fiiller ve düzensiz fiiller.



Düzenli fiiller (Regular Verbs) :


1. Sonu "e" ile biten fiillere sadece "-d" takısı gelir, diğerlerine ise "-ed" takısı gelir.



arrive- arrived

smile- smiled

visit- visited

watch- watched

 

2. Sonu"-y" ile biten fiillerde (y kalkar) "-ied" takısı gelir. "y" den önce gelen harfin ünsüz

olması gerekir.

study- studied

bury- buried

 

Düzensiz fiiller (Irregular Verbs) :

Düzensiz fiillerin ise ezberlenmesi gerekiyor, tablodaki ikinci sırada olan şekli yazılır.

mesela eat (yemek) --> ate = Yesterday I ate sandwich at lunch

 

Liste :


Infinitive -Simple Past -Past Participle



arise arose arisen

awake awoke awoken

be was/were been

beat beat beaten

become became become

befall befell befallen

begin began begun

behold beheld beheld

bend bent bent

bite bit bitten

bleed bled bled

blow blew blown

break broke broken

bring brought brought

build built built

burn burnt burnt

burst burst burst

bust bust bust

buy bought bought

catch caught caught

choose chose chosen

come came come

cost cost cost

creep crept crept

cut cut cut

deal dealt dealt

dig dug dug

do did done

draw drew drawn

dream dreamt dreamt

drink drank drunk

drive drove driven

eat ate eaten

fall fell fallen

feed fed fed

feel felt felt

fight fought fought

find found found

fling flung flung

fly flew flown

forbid forbade forbidden

forecast forecast forecast

forget forgot forgotten

forgive forgave forgiven

forsake forsook forsaken

freeze froze frozen

get got gotten

give gave given

go went gone

grind ground ground

grow grew grown

hang hung hung

have had had

hear heard heard

hide hid hidden

hit hit hit

hold held held

hurt hurt hurt

keep kept kept

kneel knelt knelt

know knew known

lay laid laid

lead led led

learn learnt learnt

leave left left

lend lent lent

let let let

lie lay lain

light lit lit

lose lost lost

make made made

mean meant meant

meet met met

mistake mistook mistaken

pay paid paid

prove proved proven

put put put

read read read

ride rode ridden

ring rang rung

rise rose risen

run ran run

say said said

see saw seen

seek sought sought

sell sold sold

send sent sent

set set set

shake shook shaken

shear sheared shorn

shine shone shone

shoot shot shot

show showed shown

shrink shrank shrunk

shut shut shut

sing sang sung

sit sat sat

slay slew slain

sleep slept slept

slide slid slid

sling slung slung

slit slit slit

smell smelt smelt

speak spoke spoken

speed sped sped

spell spelt spelt

spend spent spent

split split split

spoil spoilt spoilt

spread spread spread

spring sprang sprung

stand stood stood

steal stole stolen

stick stuck stuck

sting stung stung

strike struck stricken

swear swore sworn

sweep swept swept

swell swelled swollen

swim swam swum

swing swung swung

take took taken

teach taught taught

tear tore torn

tell told told

think thought thought

throw threw thrown

thrust thrust thrust

tread trod trodden

underlie underlay underlain

understand understood understood

undertake undertook undertaken

wake woke woken

wear wore worn

weep wept wept

win won won

wind wound wound

write wrote written

 

Olumlu Şekli



Özne + fiil + -ed (yada ikinci sıra)



I spent a lot of money last year. (Geçen sene çok para harcadım.)

Osman washed his car yesterday. (Dün Osman arabasını yıkadı.)

 

Olumsuz Şekli


Özne + didn't + fiil (çekilmemiş hali)


I didn't listen to news last night. (Geçen akşam haberleri dinlemedim.)

We didn't makea cake yesterday. (Dün kek yapmadık.)

 

Soru Şekli


Did + özne + fiil (çekilmemiş hali)



Did you play basketball last week? (Geçen hafta basketbol oynadın mı?)

Did they stay at home last night? (Geçen hafta evde mi kaldılar?)

 
Did they play football yesterday?



Yes, they played football yesterday.

= Yes, they did.

No, they didn't play football yesterday.

= No, they didn't. 



Simple Past Bildiren kelimeler

ago: önce

yesterday: dün

last: geçen

last week/month/year: geçen hafta/ay/sene




Exercise: Cümlelerdeki boşlukları parantez içindeki fiillerle doldurunuz.


1. ..........(you/go) to London yesterday?

2. Yes, I ...........(kisa cevap)

3. I ..........(take) the Eurostar

4. and I ..........(arrive) at Waterloo Station.

5. I ..........(meet) old friends there.

6. They ...........(be) all very happy to see me.

7. I ..........(visit) the town with them.

8. I even ..........(see) Prince Charles!

9. I ..........(go) to Buckingham Palace too!

10. It ..........(be) a wonderful journey!

The Present Continuous Tense / Şimdiki Zaman

The Present Continuous Tense / Şimdiki Zaman

 

--> BE + Fiil + -ing

 

1. Konuşma anında yapılan işleri anlatır. ( I am working. Çalışıyorum. ).



2. Gelecek zaman zarfıyla gelecek zamanı anlatır. ( We are leaving next week. Gelecek hafta gidiyoruz. )

 

Yazım Kuralları

 
1. Sonunda "e" harfi olan fiiller "-ing" alırken "e" kaldırılır.

örnek : write- writing

come- coming

 

2. Tek heceli olan VE sonu sessiz harf-sesli harf-sessiz harf'le biten fiiller "-ing" alırken sondaki sessiz harf tekrar edilir. (iki şartlarında olması gerek)



örnek : run- running

sit- sitting

 

Olumlu Şekli



Özne + am/is/are + fiil + -ing

 
Örnekler:

I am playing tennis now. (şimdi tenis oynuyorum)



You are using computer at the moment. (şu anda bilgisayar kullanıyorsun)



It is raining. (yağmur yağıyor)

 



Olumsuz Şekli




Özne + am/is/are + not + fiil + -ing



is not = isn't

are not = aren't

 

Örnekler:

You aren't listening to music now. (şimdi müzik dinlemiyorsun)



Ali isn't helping his mother at the moment. (şu anda Ali annesine yardım etmiyor)

 

Soru Şekli



am/is/are + Özne + fiil + -ing

 

Örnekler:

Are you learning English now? (şimdi ingilizce öğreniyormusun?)

Is dog eating now? (şimdi köpek yiyormu?)

 


Present Continuous Bildiren kelimeler

now: şimdi

still: hala

at present: şu anda

at the moment: şu anda



- What are they doing? (Ne yapiyorlar?)

- They are playing football. (Futbol oynuyorlar)

 

I am playing football.

You are playing football.

He/She/Itis playing football.

We are playing football.

You are playing football.

They are playing football.

 

Are they playing football?



Uzun cevap : Yes, they're playing football.

No, they aren't playingfootball.



Kisa cevap: Yes, they are.

No, they aren't.

 

Present Continuous Tense (şimdiki zaman)




Olumlu cümlelerde (+)

özne+ yardımcı fiil + fiil+ing + nesne + yer + zaman



Subject + am/is/are + Ving + place + time





Olumsuz cümlelerde (-)

özne+ yardımcı fiil + not + fiil+ing + nesne + yer + zaman



Subject + am/is/are + not + Ving + place + time





Soru cümlelerinde (?)



yardımcı fiil + özne+ fiil+ing + nesne + yer + zaman ?



am/is/are + Subject + Ving + place + time ?



Olumluya örnek



I a listening to My teacher ot the moment

Ben şu an öğretmenimi dinliyorum.






Exercise: Cümlelerdeki boşlukları parantez içindeki fiillerle doldurunuz.

 
1. They..........(study) at the moment.

2. She..........(watch) TV.

3. What..........(you/read) at the moment?

4. I..........(cook) dinner tonight. Would you like to come?

5. It..........(not/work). I think it's broken.

6. He..........(learn) German for his job.

7. Paul and Mike..........(play) football.

8. Why..........(Sarah/cry)?

9. He..........(sit) on the bench.

10. I..........(do) my homework.

11. Shhh! Be quiet! John..........(sleep)

12. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It..........(rain)

13. Hurry up! Everybody..........(wait) for you.

14. 'Can you drive?' 'I..........(learn).

15. My father (teach)..........me. .

16. ..........(you / listen) to the radio ?' 'No, you can turn it off.'

17. 'How is your English?' 'Not bad. It..........(improve) slowly.

18. Ron is in London at the moment. He..........(stay) at the Park Hotel.

19. Can we stop walking soon? I..........(start) to feel tired.

20. 'He's an architect but he..........(not/work) at the moment.'